Lately scholars of management combined the commanding and coordinating function into one leading function. Principles of management[ edit ] Division of work - In practice, employees are specialized in different areas and they have different skills. Different levels of expertise can be distinguished within the knowledge areas from generalist to specialist. Personal and professional developments support this. According to Henri Fayol specialization promotes efficiency of the workforce and increases productivity.
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He was born in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire. He grew up in a bourgeois family, so he could study in the best institutes in the city. He studied civil engineering of mines and finished in When he finished, he got a job as an engineer in the mines of an important mining and metallurgical group: the Comantry Fourchambault Corporation.
Fayol witnessed the irruption of the Industrial Revolution and later its consequences. Also, he experienced the consequences of the First World War. From the age of 19, he began his experience in the field of metallurgy and coal. Due to the above, at age of 25, he was appointed mining manager.
In , Fayol was invited to the Paris Congress of the Mining Industrial Society, held on the occasion of the Universal Exposition, to present a report on the alteration and spontaneous combustion of the coal exposed to the air.
This work was very well received and received very positive reviews, consecrating Fayol as an influential man in the world of science. His contributions to the field of administrative thinking are remarkable. Several of his postulates are well developed in the work Industrial and General Administration , this work first came out in the French countryside. Fayol was influenced by the theory of Frederick Taylor in the field of scientific organization of work, whose influence emerged in the second stage of the Industrial Revolution.
Fayol developed an administrative model of great rigor for his time, based on a positivist methodology, which focused on observing the facts, making experiences and extracting rules. In , he published The Industrial Disability of the State, made a defense of the postulates of free enterprise against the intervention of the State in economic life.
During his academic life, he developed three essential aspects within the administrative model: the division of labor, the application of an administrative process and the formulation of technical criteria that should guide the administrative function. For Fayol, the administrative function has as its object only the social body: while the other functions affect not only the personnel of the company but also the raw material and the machines.
His knowledge allowed an important company: the Compagnie Commentary Fourchambault et Decazeville, which was in a difficult administrative and economic situation, to get out of this crisis.
His administration was very successful, Fayol was CEO until when, due to his advanced age, he decided to pass on his company to his successor. Later, Fayol dedicated his life to write and deepen his administrative theories. Management and development of various concepts, for example, the division of labor, discipline, authority, unity and command hierarchy, centralization, fair remuneration, staff stability, teamwork, initiative, general interest, etc.
His contribution is very important because in the field of business management he distinguished four functional areas: planning, organization, command and coordination and control. In Industrial and General Administration each one of these important areas is developed. The aforementioned work was translated into English until and did not have much impact until its second translation in By that time, Fayol had already died because of his advanced age, specifically died on November 19, , in the French capital.
Shortly before his death, he published an important and controversial work: The industrial incapacity of the state , where he defended the postulates of free enterprise against the intervention of the State in economic life.
Although he took some lessons from him, he decided to focus on various aspects. The studies of this subject were more valued well into the Industrial Revolution. Currently, studies have linked their thinking with the postulates of economic liberalism.
Management & Administration : Les apports de Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
Qui est Henri Fayol ?