For a brief period starting from , Averroes was banished by Caliph Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur , likely for political reasons. By Averroes was in Marrakesh Morocco , the capital of the Almohad Caliphate, to perform astronomical observations and to support the Almohad project of building new colleges. The Encyclopaedia of Islam said the caliph distanced himself from Averroes to gain support from more orthodox ulema, who opposed Averroes and whose support al-Mansur needed for his war against Christian kingdoms. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century See also: List of works by Averroes Averroes was a prolific writer and his works, according to Fakhry, "covered a greater variety of subjects" than those of any of his predecessors in the East, including philosophy, medicine, jurisprudence or legal theory, and linguistics. Fasl al-Maqal "The Decisive Treatise" is an treatise that argues for the compatibility of Islam and philosophy. It combines ideas in his commentaries and stand alone works, and uses them to respond to al-Ghazali.
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He believed in the eternity of the universe. He also held that the soul is divided into two parts, one individual and one divine; while the individual soul is not eternal, all humans at the basic level share one and the same divine soul. Ibn Rushd has two kinds of Knowledge of Truth. The first being his knowledge of truth of religion being based in faith and thus could not be tested, nor did it require training to understand. The second knowledge of truth is philosophy, which was reserved for an elite few who had the intellectual capacity to undertake this study.
In medieval Europe, his school of philosophy known as Averroism exerted a strong influence on Jewish philosophers such as Gersonides and Maimonides  , and was opposed by Christian philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas.
He rejected the Ptolemaic model and instead argued for a strictly concentric model of the universe. He wrote the following criticism on the Ptolemaic model of planetary motion:  "To assert the existence of an eccentric sphere or an epicyclic sphere is contrary to nature.
For, he posited a non-gravitational, previously unaccounted, inherent resistance to motion, as hidden within the celestial spheres. He posited all bodies universally have a non-gravitational inherent resistance to motion constituted by their magnitude or mass. For the first time we have seen the notion of mass being introduced in mechanics, and being introduced as equivalent to what remains in a body when one has suppressed all forms in order to leave only the prime matter quantified by its determined dimensions.
This mass, this quantified body, resists the motor attempting to transport it from one place to another, stated Thomas Aquinas. For otherwise, that resistance would destroy their impetus, as the anti-Duhemian historian of science Annaliese Maier maintained the Parisian impetus dynamicists were forced to conclude, because of their belief in an inherent inclinatio ad quietem tendency to rest or inertia in all bodies.
However; in cases of Hudud , there is a difference of opinion among our jurists. The majority say that in these affairs the testimony of women is in no way acceptable whether they testify alongside a male witness or do so alone. The Zahiris on the contrary maintain that if they are more than one and are accompanied by a male witness, then owing to the apparent meaning of the verse their testimony will be acceptable in all affairs.
Imam Malik is of the view that their testimony is not acceptable in bodily affairs. There is however a difference of opinion among the companions of Imam Malik regarding bodily affairs which relate to wealth like advocacy and will-testaments which do not specifically relate to wealth.
Consequently, Ash-hab and Ibn Majishun accept two male witnesses only in these affairs, while to Malik Ibn Qasim and Ibn Wahab two female and a male witness are acceptable. As far as the matter of women as sole witnesses is concerned, the majority accept it only in bodily affairs, about which men can have no information in ordinary circumstances like the physical handicaps of women and the crying of a baby at birth.
The session of this Shura took place during his period when people started indulging in this habit more frequently. He is known for writing the most elaborate commentaries on Aristotelian logic. This encyclopedic work was completed at some time before and elaborated on physiology , general pathology , diagnosis , materia medica , hygiene and general therapeutics. He argued that no one can suffer from smallpox twice, and fully understood the function of the retina.
Averroes corrected this by showing that sight is the function of the retina. Although he never undertook human dissection, he was aware of it being carried out by some of his contemporaries, such as Ibn Zuhr Avenzoar , and appears to have supported the practice. Ibn Rushd stated that the "practice of dissection strengthens the faith"  due to his view of the human body as "the remarkable handiwork of God in his creation.
He used several methods of therapy for this issue, including the single drug method where a tested drug is prescribed, and a "combination method of either a drug or food. His work led to much discussion in 16th century Europe over whether the principal organ of sight is the traditional Galenic crystalline humour or the Averroist aranea, which in turn led to the discovery that the retina is the principal organ of sight.
This text was translated into Latin by Michael Scot d. Averroes was the first to define and measure force as "the rate at which work is done in changing the kinetic condition of a material body "  and the first to correctly argue "that the effect and measure of force is change in the kinetic condition of a materially resistant mass.
For Aristotle had assumed the only inherent resistance to motion in bodies is that of gravity, without which bodies would not inherently resist any motion, and which does not resist gravitational i.
The Averroes-Aquinas notion of inertia was eventually adopted by Kepler, but not by scholastic Aristotelian impetus dynamics nor Galileo Galilei who maintained like.
THE DECISIVE TREATISE, DETERMINING THE NATURE OF THE CONNECTION BETWEEN RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
The purpose of this treatise is to examine, from the standpoint of the study of the Law, whether the study of philosophy and logic is allowed by the Law, or prohibited, or commanded either by way of recommendation or as obligatory. The Law Makes Philosophic Studies Obligatory If teleological study of the world is philosophy, and if the Law commands such a study, then the Law commands philosophy. We say: If the activity of "philosophy" is nothing more than study of existing beings and reflection on them as indications of the Artisan, i. The Law commands such a study. Another example is His saying, "Have they not studied the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and whatever things God has created?
Averroes, the Decisive Treatise
Secondary Sources 1. Biography Ibn Rushd was born in Cordova, Spain, to a family with a long and well-respected tradition of legal and public service. His grandfather, the influential Abdul-Walid Muhammad d. The earliest biographers and Muslim chroniclers speak little about his education in science and philosophy, where most interest from Western scholarship in him lies, but note his propensity towards the law and his life as a jurist.
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126—1198)
His contributions to philosophy took many forms, ranging from his detailed commentaries on Aristotle, his defense of philosophy against the attacks of those who condemned it as contrary to Islam and his construction of a form of Aristotelianism which cleansed it, as far as was possible at the time, of Neoplatonic influences. That discovery was instrumental in launching Latin Scholasticism and, in due course, the European Renaissance of the fifteenth century. Dunya in one file A Critical Edition under the supervision of M. Bouyges, Beirut. Listing of works in print to come. Note that his commentaries come in three forms: summaries, middle commentaries, and grand commentaries. Also some of his works were lost and no longer available in Arabic but are available in Hebrew translation and transliteration.
Decisive Treatise and Epistle Dedicatory
He believed in the eternity of the universe. He also held that the soul is divided into two parts, one individual and one divine; while the individual soul is not eternal, all humans at the basic level share one and the same divine soul. Ibn Rushd has two kinds of Knowledge of Truth. The first being his knowledge of truth of religion being based in faith and thus could not be tested, nor did it require training to understand. The second knowledge of truth is philosophy, which was reserved for an elite few who had the intellectual capacity to undertake this study. In medieval Europe, his school of philosophy known as Averroism exerted a strong influence on Jewish philosophers such as Gersonides and Maimonides  , and was opposed by Christian philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas.