Pharm Ay. E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Echinops echinatus Roxb. The roots, leaves, fruit, and bark are extensively used in folk medicine as well as in Ayurveda.
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No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract The genus Echinops belongs to the family of Asteraceae and comprises about species.
Many species belonging to the genus Echinops are traditionally used as medicinals mainly in Africa and Asia. The genus is reported to contain diverse secondary metabolites. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the available research reports on the genus and systematically organize the findings. Information for this study was obtained using various search engines including PubMed and Google Scholar. This review revealed that the genus is used traditionally to treat pain, inflammation, respiratory diseases, diseases caused by different microorganisms, as an aphrodisiac, to fasten expulsion of placenta, and for removal of renal stones.
More than secondary metabolites have been reported from the genus in which thiophenic compounds held the biggest share. Various extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds from members of this genus are shown to exhibit different biological effects mainly anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory. However, there are a number of species in this genus that are claimed to have traditional medicinal uses but their biological effect not yet been evaluated. Keywords: Echinops, thiophene, phytochemistry, Asteraceae, pharmacological activity, traditional use Introduction Echinops L.
Asteraceae is a monophyletic taxon distinguished by florets arranged on a receptacle in centripetal heads and bounded by bracts. The genus Echinops belongs to the tribe Cardueae and is recognized by the presence of uniflowered capitula aggregated into second-order spherical or oval heads.
This feature makes it unique within the tribe Garnatje et al. Members of this genus are mostly perennial with few annuals Hedberg et al. Many members of this genus are traditionally used to treat different diseases. Some are scientifically investigated for various biological activities and phytoconstituents.
Previously, reviews that focus on single species, Echinops spinosus L. This review is aimed to critically evaluate available research reports on the genus and systematically organize and present the findings. This review excluded unpublished findings and publications which were not available online and articles written in languages other than English.
Chemical structures of only isolated and characterized compounds were provided while structures of compounds identified from essential oils and other chemical analysis were not. The main sources of the structures of isolated compounds were the research articles and these were confirmed using PubChem. Structures that were not available in the articles were obtained from theses, books, PubChem, and other reliable sources.
Different search engines including PubMed and Google Scholar were employed to search literature using searching words such as Echinops, plant, phytochemical, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, biological effect, and traditional use. Traditional Uses Ethnomedicinal claims on the genus Echinops to treat a number of ailments are depicted in Table 1. The common traditional uses can fall into three general groups. The frequently described application is to treat symptoms like inflammation, pain, and fever Regassa, ; Rathore et al.
The other common traditional use was to treat ailments related to respiratory tract including cough and sore throat Ghasemi Pirbalouti et al. Members of the genus have been used as an aphrodisiac Hamayun et al. Three species E. Table 1 Traditional uses of members of the genus Echinops.
Echinops Echinatus Herb Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients