FRONTINUS STRATAGEMS PDF

Career[ edit ] In AD 70, Frontinus participated in the suppression of the Rhineland revolt, and later recorded that he received the surrender of 70, Lingones. While governor of Britain, he subjugated the Silures of South Wales and is thought to have likewise campaigned against the Brigantes. Birley believes it "is fair to speculate" that Frontinus was with Domitian during the German campaign of An inscription at Hieropolis in Phrygia , as well as a number of coins of Smyrna , attests that he was proconsul of Asia in AD In this capacity, he followed another distinguished Roman statesman, Agrippa , the friend, ally and son-in-law of Augustus, who organised in 34 BC a campaign of public repairs and improvements, including renovation of the aqueduct Aqua Marcia and an extension of its pipes to cover more of the city. The following year Frontinus held a second consulship as suffect in February, with Trajan as his colleague, and two years later he was made consul ordinarius with Trajan.

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Career[ edit ] In AD 70, Frontinus participated in the suppression of the Rhineland revolt, and later recorded that he received the surrender of 70, Lingones. While governor of Britain, he subjugated the Silures of South Wales and is thought to have likewise campaigned against the Brigantes. Birley believes it "is fair to speculate" that Frontinus was with Domitian during the German campaign of An inscription at Hieropolis in Phrygia , as well as a number of coins of Smyrna , attests that he was proconsul of Asia in AD In this capacity, he followed another distinguished Roman statesman, Agrippa , the friend, ally and son-in-law of Augustus, who organised in 34 BC a campaign of public repairs and improvements, including renovation of the aqueduct Aqua Marcia and an extension of its pipes to cover more of the city.

The following year Frontinus held a second consulship as suffect in February, with Trajan as his colleague, and two years later he was made consul ordinarius with Trajan.

Birley notes, "This exceptional honour underlines the high regard in which he [Frontinus] was held, and suggests, further, that Trajan had a debt to repay. Some details can be inferred from chance mentions: He is thought to be of Narbonese origins, and originally of the equestrian class. It presents a history and description of the water-supply of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance. Frontinus describes the quality of water delivered by each, mainly depending on their source, be it river, lake, or spring.

Fraud and theft[ edit ] One of the first jobs he undertook when he was appointed water commissioner was to prepare maps of the system so that he could assess their condition before undertaking their maintenance. He says that many had been neglected and were not working at their full capacity. He was especially concerned by diversion of the supply by unscrupulous farmers and tradesmen, among many others.

They would insert pipes into the channel of the aqueducts to tap the supply. He, therefore, made a meticulous survey of the intake and the supply of each line, and then investigated the discrepancies. Lead pipe stamps bearing the name of the owner were also used to prevent such water theft. He was well aware of the seminal work De Architectura by Vitruvius , which mentions aqueduct construction and maintenance published in the previous century; Frontinus refers to the possible influence of Vitruvius on the plumbers.

Thus, poor-quality water would be sent for irrigation, gardens, or flushing, while only the best would be reserved for drinking water. Intermediate-quality water would be used for the many baths and fountains. However, Frontinus criticized the practice of mixing supplies from different sources, and one of his first decisions was to separate the waters from each system.

Maintenance[ edit ] He was very concerned by leaks in the system, especially those in the underground conduits, which were difficult to locate and mend, a problem still faced by water engineers today. The aqueducts above ground needed care to ensure that the masonry was kept in good condition, especially those running on arched superstructures.

It was, he said, essential to keep trees at a distance so that their roots would not damage the structures. He reviewed the existing law governing the state aqueducts, as well as the need for enforcement of those statutes. Military tactics[ edit ] Frontinus also wrote a theoretical treatise on military science, which is lost.

His extant work on military matters, the Stratagems Latin: Strategemata , is a collection of examples of military stratagems from Greek and Roman history, for the use of generals. He draws on his own experience as a general in Germania under Domitian , but similarities between the anecdotes he records and versions of other Roman authors like Valerius Maximus and Livy suggest that he drew mainly on literary sources.

The authenticity of the fourth book has been challenged. Then, when the enemy were in a panic from the sudden flood, he had them slain by men whom he had stationed in ambush for this very purpose. Bennet, edited by Mary B. McElwain, has been published in the Loeb Classical Library. Other works[ edit ] The latest edition of the Stratagems is by R. McElwain ,

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Sexto Julio Frontino

This article is about the book by Frontinus. For the work by Polyaenus, see Stratagems Polyaenus. For articles with similar titles, see Stratagem. The nineteenth-century Teubner edition of the Latin text Strategemata, or Stratagems, is a work by the Roman author Frontinus c. It is a collection of examples of military stratagems from Greek and Roman history, ostensibly for the use of generals. Frontinus is assumed to have written Strategemata towards the end of the first century AD, possibly in connection with a lost work on military theory.

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Sextus Julius Frontinus

See all: Loeb Classical Library The digital Loeb Classical Library extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature. Praetor of the city in 70 and consul in 73 or 74, 98 and , he was, about the year 76, sent to Britain as governor. He quelled the Silures of Wales, and began to build a road through their territory; his place was taken by Agricola in In 97 he was given the highly esteemed office of Manager of Aqueducts at Rome.

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Stratagems. Aqueducts of Rome

Volume 74 Issue Octpp. He is known to have been an augur, being succeeded by his friend Pliny the younger. The Stratagems, and the Aqueducts of Rome, with an English translation On dispelling the fears inspired in soldiers by adverse omens. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. He is known to have been an frontinis, being succeeded by his friend Pliny the Younger. For articles with similar titles, see Stratagem. Volume 14 Issue 2 Decpp.

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Frontinus: The Strategemata

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